Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an "Annex 1" country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases.  How each country is on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be constantly monitored online (via the Climate Action Tracker and the climate clock). Meanwhile, Russia and Brazil, two other countries responsible for managing climate pollution, are largely at the top of the Paris agreement. In Brazil, under the government of President Jair Bolsonaro, deforestation in the Amazon has soared and released huge amounts of carbon stored in trees and underground. Biden would immediately join the Paris Agreement, which would take about 30 days. The former vice president has outlined an ambitious climate plan, but most of them require a congressional amendment. His proposal will be almost impossible to implement if Democrats don`t take control of the Senate. Important climate laws will be difficult to pass, even if Democrats have a majority in the House of Representatives and the Senate and Biden is in the White House. Indeed, research shows that the cost of climate activity far outweighs the cost of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the United States does not meet its climate targets in Paris, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades. A lack of compliance with the NPNs currently foreseen in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century. Meanwhile, another study estimates that achieving – or even exceeding – the Paris targets by investing in infrastructure in clean energy and energy efficiency could have great benefits globally – about $19 trillion.
At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  In the end, all parties recognized the need to "prevent, minimize and address losses and damages," but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded.  The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.  When world leaders celebrated in Paris in December 2015 that they had reached a pioneering agreement on climate change, the Eiffel Tower and the Arc de Triomphe were lit by flood green lights and by the embassy "Paris Agreement is done!" (The Paris Agreement is concluded!). Now, five years of turbulence later, a new slogan could be "work in progress." The agreement stated that it would only enter into force (and therefore fully effective) if 55 countries that produce at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015)  ratify, accept, approve or adhere to the agreement.   On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris climate agreement.  175 contracting parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first day of its signing.   On the same day, more than 20 countries announced plans to join the accession as soon as possible in 2016.